Dr Sally Leivesley
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Biological Threats: Overview

Newrisk Limited and its principal adviser, Dr Leivesley, have advised organisations and governments on biological threats, including anthrax attacks and pandemic risks - specifically in relation to avian influenza.

Pandemic protection advice has previously been provided by Newrisk Limited to cover risks posed to those at home and in the workplace as well as specialist advice for critical infrastructure teams and critical function departments in government and defence units.

In 2005-2006, workshop exercises were conducted for corporations on pandemic survival and business continuity under extreme pandemic threats (including exercises on threats to critical British infrastructure from anthrax and other forms of biological threat). Newrisk Limited's principal adviser, Dr Leivesley, has provided research papers on biological threats to the Permanent Monitoring Panel for the Mitigation of Terrorist Acts for the World Federation of Scientists. Dr Leivesley has also provided media commentary on threats to businesses and practical measures which individuals can take to self-protect when faced with a biological threat.

For previous lectures, conference papers, workshops, publications and commentary on biological threats, please click here.

Newrisk Limited is able to provide a variety of services to organisations and governments in connection with biological threats, including risk assessments, continuity planning and employee preparedness training. To request one of these service, please contact Newrisk Limited directly.

Other Areas of Expertise

Newrisk Limited's areas of expertise cover the preparation for, and response to, catastrophic and extreme risk events as well as major incidents and business continuity.

Dr Leivesley is, on behalf of Newrisk Limited, ideally qualified to provide advisory services to organisations and governments and her practice background, publications, presentations and media are listed under the following areas of expertise:

Audit Assurance Risk Aviation Expertise Catastrophic Risk CBRNE Expertise Chemical Threats Continuity Planning Expertise Criminal Justice Expertise Cyber Security Expertise Defence and Policing Expertise Disasters Expertise Education Expertise Emergency Services Expertise Explosives Incidents Financial Threats Expertise Insurance Expertise London in 2012 Nuclear Incidents Radiological Incidents Reputation Management Expertise Risk Management Expertise Terrorism & Security Expertise Transportation Security Expertise

To request Newrisk Limited's assistance in connection with any of these areas of expertise or to discuss a tailored package of services, please contact Newrisk Limited directly.


Sally Leivesley



  • Terror 2015
  • Cyber-MH370
  1. Terror 2015:

Daesh (ISIS) have a more significant recruitment presence in Britain which increases the risks to the public and to critical infrastructure.  Cyber on-line and personal influence recruitment may be reduced if 9-10 year olds are given an education and exercising programme for Cyber Care and Terror Beware within all schools as national curriculum activities for personal development and cyber and physical security.  This would take children through the scenarios of grooming on-line and interpersonal persuasion to create an awareness of the dangers of terrorist approaches. A hardening of a cohort of young persons against persuasion into the terrorist career path or accepting gifts of on-line literature would deliver a reduced flow of recruits into the terrorist organisation. 

Ongoing terror risks for people in Britain include (1) Aviation attacks with deceptive bombs or sharp weapons defeating airport detection; (2) Attacks by individuals persuaded to shoot, behead or use explosive (3) Militia style attacks with small groups coordinating attacks in different locations (4) Attacks on security force personnel and sites; (5) Transport attacks and crowd location attacks.

  • A strategic cyber arms race may impact on transportation and other critical infrastructure.  Flight MH370 Interim Report released March 2015 has provided no conclusive evidence against two possible forensic causes – a suicidal activity by someone in the cockpit or a cyber-attack as a test of a strategic cyber weapon tested on the computer systems of an early version of smart planes.  Strategic cyber weapons may become more evident in hostilities between countries and in asymmetric weapons sought by terror groups. Governments and corporations have options of simulating vulnerabilities in desktop exercises, computer gaming or in combined physical and cyber penetration testing to identify and resolve vulnerabilities in human factors and in systems security. The UK Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) has recently released a code of practice for cyber security of the built environment – see Code of Practice for Cyber Security in the Built Environment. An earlier document identified many pathways into the fabric of buildings that can cross over into business systems to compromise intellectual property and sensitive information - see Resilience and Cyber Security of the Built Environment.