Dr Sally Leivesley
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Biological Threats: Overview

Newrisk Limited and its principal adviser, Dr Leivesley, have advised organisations and governments on biological threats, including anthrax attacks and pandemic risks - specifically in relation to avian influenza.

Pandemic protection advice has previously been provided by Newrisk Limited to cover risks posed to those at home and in the workplace as well as specialist advice for critical infrastructure teams and critical function departments in government and defence units.

In 2005-2006, workshop exercises were conducted for corporations on pandemic survival and business continuity under extreme pandemic threats (including exercises on threats to critical British infrastructure from anthrax and other forms of biological threat). Newrisk Limited's principal adviser, Dr Leivesley, has provided research papers on biological threats to the Permanent Monitoring Panel for the Mitigation of Terrorist Acts for the World Federation of Scientists. Dr Leivesley has also provided media commentary on threats to businesses and practical measures which individuals can take to self-protect when faced with a biological threat.

For previous lectures, conference papers, workshops, publications and commentary on biological threats, please click here.

Newrisk Limited is able to provide a variety of services to organisations and governments in connection with biological threats, including risk assessments, continuity planning and employee preparedness training. To request one of these service, please contact Newrisk Limited directly.

Other Areas of Expertise

Newrisk Limited's areas of expertise cover the preparation for, and response to, catastrophic and extreme risk events as well as major incidents and business continuity.

Dr Leivesley is, on behalf of Newrisk Limited, ideally qualified to provide advisory services to organisations and governments and her practice background, publications, presentations and media are listed under the following areas of expertise:

Audit Assurance Risk Aviation Expertise Catastrophic Risk CBRNE Expertise Chemical Threats Continuity Planning Expertise Criminal Justice Expertise Cyber Security Expertise Defence and Policing Expertise Disasters Expertise Education Expertise Emergency Services Expertise Explosives Incidents Financial Threats Expertise Insurance Expertise London in 2012 Nuclear Incidents Radiological Incidents Reputation Management Expertise Risk Management Expertise Terrorism & Security Expertise Transportation Security Expertise

To request Newrisk Limited's assistance in connection with any of these areas of expertise or to discuss a tailored package of services, please contact Newrisk Limited directly.


Sally Leivesley



  • 2016: Terror
  • 2016: Cyber

The flashover effect of Daesh (ISIS) recruitment in over 100 countries & successful attacks will escalate in 2016. Daesh attacks on security of London & other major cities will weaken if the public learn to self-protect;  thousands of Army personnel & Reservists do firearms exercises with police; airlines use secondary screening at the door, airside security & dogs; underground rail use staff uniforms to carry explosives detector alarms; shops show emergency exits with big signs;  all companies test staff 6 monthly for fast exits & reporting suspicions of internal or external threats; all 9 year olds in schools have terror protect modules to learn self-protection & reduce teenage risk of recruitment. UK risks in 2016 (which are similar to many countries) are: (1) Aviation with deceptive bombs or sharp weapons defeating airport detection; (2) Individuals persuaded to shoot, behead or use explosives; (3) Militia style small groups coordinating attacks in different locations; (4) Risks to police, army & other security personnel & secure sites; (5) Transport & crowd location attacks.

Aviation remains the ‘canary’ for exposures in coding, legacy systems engineering accessible through old software & increasing use of wireless and internet connected critical flight operations. This extends through to airports’ cyber systems, built environment and aviation supply chains. Energy, water supply, communications & government web sites interfacing with the public will have increased levels of attack in 2016.  Cyber threats 2016 will change rapidly because technology is operating on increasingly open platforms & organised crime has successfully tapped into big data thefts for financial gain. Security is no longer allowed to slow down the innovative drive through The Internet of Things. Public protection will remain poor until a UN agreement is designed for 200+ nations to define laws for cyberspace & agree a high level scientific council for monitoring compliance.  Companies will suffer a rapid emergence of persistent threats & use of industrial control systems vulnerabilities to break open the fabric of security within buildings. A BBC Radio 4 programme, The Nervous Breakdown of the Internet, November 2015 underlined the reality of perfect security being unavailable to governments or industry.