Dr Sally Leivesley
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Biological Threats: Overview

Newrisk Limited and its principal adviser, Dr Leivesley, have advised organisations and governments on biological threats, including anthrax attacks and pandemic risks - specifically in relation to avian influenza.

Pandemic protection advice has previously been provided by Newrisk Limited to cover risks posed to those at home and in the workplace as well as specialist advice for critical infrastructure teams and critical function departments in government and defence units.

In 2005-2006, workshop exercises were conducted for corporations on pandemic survival and business continuity under extreme pandemic threats (including exercises on threats to critical British infrastructure from anthrax and other forms of biological threat). Newrisk Limited's principal adviser, Dr Leivesley, has provided research papers on biological threats to the Permanent Monitoring Panel for the Mitigation of Terrorist Acts for the World Federation of Scientists. Dr Leivesley has also provided media commentary on threats to businesses and practical measures which individuals can take to self-protect when faced with a biological threat.

For previous lectures, conference papers, workshops, publications and commentary on biological threats, please click here.

Newrisk Limited is able to provide a variety of services to organisations and governments in connection with biological threats, including risk assessments, continuity planning and employee preparedness training. To request one of these service, please contact Newrisk Limited directly.

Other Areas of Expertise

Newrisk Limited's areas of expertise cover the preparation for, and response to, catastrophic and extreme risk events as well as major incidents and business continuity.

Dr Leivesley is, on behalf of Newrisk Limited, ideally qualified to provide advisory services to organisations and governments and her practice background, publications, presentations and media are listed under the following areas of expertise:

Audit Assurance Risk Aviation Expertise Catastrophic Risk CBRNE Expertise Chemical Threats Continuity Planning Expertise Criminal Justice Expertise Cyber Security Expertise Defence and Policing Expertise Disasters Expertise Education Expertise Emergency Services Expertise Explosives Incidents Financial Threats Expertise Insurance Expertise London in 2012 Nuclear Incidents Radiological Incidents Reputation Management Expertise Risk Management Expertise Terrorism & Security Expertise Transportation Security Expertise

To request Newrisk Limited's assistance in connection with any of these areas of expertise or to discuss a tailored package of services, please contact Newrisk Limited directly.


Sally Leivesley



  • Terror 2015
  • Cyber 2015
  1. Terror 2015:
  2. (1) Aviation attacks with deceptive bombs or sharp weapons defeating airport detection; (2) Suicide foreign volunteers in front line conflicts; (3) Militia style attacks on vulnerable institutions such as the Peshawar school massacre in December; (4) Militia style attacks on well defended security sites; (5) Attacks on security force personnel in undefended situations; (6) Increasingly cruel attacks on civilians such as the Nigerian village & school attacks in 2014.
  3. Protection in 2015 requires:
  4. (1) Public knowledge of danger cues; (2) Children educated in self-protection in schools; (3) Shopping mall visitors knowing exits other than main thoroughfares; (4) Aviation traveller awareness of unusual behaviour or objects; (5) Security personnel to advise families at home of security awareness in the street; (6) Community watch and report activity massively increased; (7) Governments to integrate military specialists with police; (8) Crowded places with covert police & military presence; (9) Mobile phone apps for community, aviation, local street, workplace reports & warnings; (10) Police increasingly trained on internet intelligence gathering; (11) Social media real-time analysis of threat communications & clusters with risk behaviour.
  • Cyber 2015:
  • (1) Russia’s multiple problems with finance and border conflicts may lead to aggressive but low level cyber warfare on neighbours and iconic enemies; (2) Increasing scale of attacks following the Sony hack in 2014
  • Spread of North Korean cyber aggression following the successful Sony hack; (3) World business loss of intellectual property and senior personnel targeted at home and work; (4) Energy, water and household connectedness to the internet will open many pathways to attack; (5) Aviation is a special case of commercial espionage and potential strategic cyber weapons attacks; (6) Aviation as a cyber-target of mobile phones and mobile devices; (7) Banking services on-line and other financial transactions increasingly targeted by cyber criminals; (8) Permanent loss of security for small business and citizens despite increased awareness of managing computer security; (9) Mobile phones and mobile devices increasingly the targets of attack because of financial information access and back entry into computers; (10) Less visibility of attacks through cloud service penetration; (11) Increased corporate integration of physical and cyber security operations; (12) Increased demands on national security services to assure network security; (13) Failure of countries to join up cyber security actions and appoint an international regulator; (14) Increased educational demand in schools, universities and professional cyber membership organisations.